1) S0HC PINTO
Introduced in 1970, the Pinto engine has been produced in 1294cc, 1593cc, 1796cc and 1993cc capacities. The 1.3 was rarely used in UK models (mainly on early Sierras) since the 1.3 X/flow was used more often in its favour. Both the 1.3 and original 1.6 used the same short rods and crank However, the later 1.6 E-
The 2.0 engine is easily modified to any stage of tune, but using anything other than a fast road cam in the other engines can create rocker geometry problems. A typical fast road tune will include a modified cam, flowed head and the best of the standard carbs -
2) ESSEX V4/V6
The original Essex engines were produced in 1965 and were available in 1663cc and 1996cc V4 capacities. A year later the 2494cc and 2994cc V6 versions were introduced. In 1970 the design of these engines was 'uprated' which resulted in a stronger and more powerful unit (but unfortunately, not lighter -
The first modification to this engine is to replace the restrictive airbox for a K&N filter. This alone will regularly see an increase of between 5-
3) COLOGNE V4/V6
The V4 engine was originally designed in the USA for a new car that was cancelled before it reached production. This engine was then fitted to a number of German Ford models, but was not fitted in any Ford model produced for the UK market. It was available in capacities of 1183cc, 1288cc, 1305cc, 1498cc and 1699cc. The V6 engine was introduced later in sizes of 1812cc, 1998cc, 2293cc, 2551cc and 2792cc. The 1.8, 2.0 and 2.6 V6 engines were only fitted in German Ford models, not UK models. In 1989. Ford introduced a redesigned engine in sizes of 2394cc and 2935cc. The 2.9 engine was also used as a basis for the Cosworth 24v quad cam engine.
In the following text, we are only concerning ourselves with the two larger types of V6 engines, although tuning principles remain the same for all sizes of engine. Although slightly less in capacity than the Essex V6, these engines are lighter and more powerful (150bhp) but have less torque or grunt than the Essex. Basically, the 2.9 unit is a longer stroke version of the 2.8, but there are also other more subtle differences between these two engines, which makes any interchange of parts very difficult. The 2.8 cylinder head has a 2 port Siamese exhaust manifold design as against the more conventional (and better) 3 port design on the 2.9. Like the Essex engine, the 2.8 V6 had the same type of cam drive gear design and the same associated problems. The 2.9 has a much more reliable chain drive for the camshaft. The 2.8 engine can be tuned to a reasonable level (modified cam, staged heads, steel cam gear, etc.) but the poor cylinder head design is its ultimate restricting feature. The American version of this engine was fitted with 3 port heads but such items can be difficult to source in the UK. For those wishing to convert their 2.8s into 2.9s be warned, it is not easy and it is not cheap. Because of the different exhaust porting the camshaft phasing is different (they also rotate in opposite directions to each other). The 2.9 distributor, oil pump and drive shaft will also be required. The differences in the chain and gear drives means that, if you fit the 2.9 crank in the 2.8 engine, the front nose will require modifying. And because of the longer stroke crank, the pistons will protrude approximately 1.5mm above the deck face. The piston crowns can be machined down but this will affect their ultimate strength, especially if the compression ratio is to be raised. With the 2.8, the con rods are the weak link. HD ARP con rod bolts are essential for over 6000 rpm. A con rod that has been stress relieved and shot peened can rev safely to 6500 rpm. An electronic rev limiter is a must have to prevent the consequences of over-
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